《国际古迹遗址理事会(ICOMOS)国际文化遗产旅游宪章》(2021)中英对照版发布

2022-03-28 浏览量:

2022年3月,《国际古迹遗址理事会(ICOMOS)国际文化遗产旅游宪章:通过负责任和可持续的旅游管理,加强文化遗产保护及社区韧性》(2021)草案已通过ICOMOS委员会审议,将在2022年IOCOMOS年会上作为一项重要决议进行表决并颁布。


新的《宪章》对《国际古迹遗址理事会国际文化旅游宪章》(1999)进行了全面的修订和更新,除了认识到旅游业对文化遗产地和旅游目的地的过度开发外,《宪章》的制定以联合国可持续发展目标(SDGs)的提出为背景,考虑到全球气候变化危机、环境退化、冲突、灾害、新冠肺炎疫情的灾难性影响,关注社区韧性、大众旅游、数字化转型和技术发展,提出了四大目标和七条准则。


和上一版本的宪章相比,新的《宪章》特别认识到了遗产地旅游业的指数级增长背景下,旅游业的变迁导致对包括文化和自然遗产在内的全球资源从根本上不可持续利用的问题。致力于重新调整一直以来以经济增长为基础的旅游方式,妥善规划和负责任地管理文化遗产旅游。新的《宪章》尤其强调负责任旅游的概念,突出长期主义和可持续性,倡导树立并增强文化遗产意识,为增进个人及社区的福祉和增强社区韧性提供机会。


《宪章》的中文翻译由中国古迹遗址保护协会青年委员、国际古迹遗址理事会国际文化旅游科学委员会副主席、深圳大学风景园林系副主任张柔然副教授翻译,协会秘书处组织校对。《宪章》中文初稿翻译由国际古迹遗址理事会国际文化旅游科学委员会青年专业人员项目组钟映秋、刘国桥、王家宁完成。


[Proposed Final Draft] ICOMOS International Charter for Cultural Heritage Tourism (2021): Reinforcing cultural heritage protection and community resilience through responsible and sustainable tourism management  


Approved by the ICOMOS ADCOMSC and ADCOM the 27th October and 3rd November 2021. To be adopted at the ICOMOS General Assembly 2022 


Preamble


Profound growth and disruption in global tourism, including cultural heritage tourism, has necessitated the revision of the ICOMOS International Charter for Cultural Tourism (1999). The process has resulted in this ICOMOS International Charter for Cultural Heritage Tourism (2021): Reinforcing cultural heritage protection and community resilience through responsible and sustainable tourism management (hereinafter “the Charter”), which complements and updates the previous one. In addition to recognizing the intensified tourism use of cultural heritage places and destinations, this Charter addresses increasing concerns about the degradation of cultural heritage along with social, ethical, cultural, environmental and economic rights issues associated with tourism.


In this Charter, cultural heritage tourism refers to all tourism activities in heritage places and destinations, including the diversity and interdependence of their tangible, intangible, cultural, natural, past and contemporary dimensions. This Charter recognizes heritage as a common resource, understanding that the governance and enjoyment of these commons are shared rights and responsibilities.


Participation in cultural life with access to cultural heritage is a human right. However, some evolved aspects of tourism have constituted fundamentally unsustainable uses of planetary resources, including cultural and natural heritage. This calls for a charter that advocates responsible and diversified cultural tourism development and management contributing to cultural heritage preservation; community empowerment, social resilience and wellbeing; and a healthy global environment.


Properly planned and responsibly managed cultural heritage tourism, involving participatory governance with diverse cultures, right-holders and stakeholders, can be a powerful vehicle for the preservation of cultural heritage and sustainable development. Responsible tourism promotes and creates cultural heritage awareness, provides opportunities for personal and community well- being and resilience, and builds respect for the diversity of other cultures. It can therefore contribute to intercultural dialogue and cooperation, mutual understanding, and peace-building.


The objectives of this Charter are:


Objective 1 - To place the protection of cultural heritage and community rights at the heart of cultural heritage tourism policy and projects, by providing principles that will inform responsible tourism planning and management for cultural heritage protection, community resilience and adaptation;


Objective 2 - To promote stakeholder collaboration and participatory governance in the stewardship of cultural heritage and management of tourism, applying a people- centered and rights-based approach, emphasizing access, education and enjoyment;


Objective 3 - To guide cultural heritage and tourism management in supporting the UN Sustainable Development Goals and Climate Action policy.


Who is this Charter for?


The responsible management of tourism is a shared responsibility of governments, tour operators, tourism businesses, destination managers and marketing organizations, site management authorities, land-use planners, heritage and tourism professionals, civil society and visitors. This Charter is relevant to all of the above as cultural heritage and tourism stakeholders. It provides guidance for heritage and tourism practitioners, professionals, and decision makers within international, national and local government agencies, organizations, institutions and administrations. It aims to be a reference for educators, academics, researchers and students engaged with cultural heritage and tourism. It applies to the management of all cultural heritage properties and to the entire spectrum of their protection, conservation, interpretation, presentation and dissemination activities, since all are connected with, and influenced by, public use and visitation.


The Charter aims to align the work of cultural heritage and tourism stakeholders in the pursuit of positive transformative change, offering principles for regenerative tourism destination management that is conscious of heritage values, as well as their vulnerability and potential. It seeks the fair, ethical and equitable distribution of tourism benefits to and within host communities, contributing towards poverty alleviation. The Charter promotes the ethical governance of cultural heritage and tourism and calls for the integration of its principles into all aspects of cultural heritage tourism.


Background


Branding and marketing of cultural heritage and its unique qualities has encouraged and driven an exponential growth in tourism to heritage destinations. Tourism has significantly impacted towns and cities with historic districts and culturally distinct urban landscapes. It has also impacted historic sites and monuments, along with natural and cultural landscapes. The interest of tourists and the tourism sector in tangible and intangible heritage has contributed towards greater awareness within local communities of the value of their heritage and its critical importance to their quality of life and identity. Indigenous communities, in particular, tend to recognize the fragility of the relationship between people and the land they live on, and the need to ensure that tourism sustains rather than erodes heritage and traditions.


Capitalizing on the increasing global interest in cultural heritage, the tourism industry has developed into a significant component of global, national, regional and local economies. When responsibly planned, developed and managed through participatory governance, tourism can provide direct, indirect and induced benefits across all dimensions of sustainability. However, unmanaged growth in tourism has transformed many places throughout the world, leaving tourism-dependent communities significantly altered and less resilient.


Growing global wealth and connectivity, linked to low-cost travel, has resulted in the evolution of mass tourism in many parts of the world. It has also led to the phenomenon of ‘overtourism’ characterized by pervasive congestion and unacceptable degradation of tangible and intangible heritage, with associated social, cultural and economic impacts. The widespread promotion, marketing and use of cultural heritage has also caused commodification and gentrification, compromising local communities and cultural integrity, and placing irreplaceable assets at risk. Recognizing that this is not always the case, ill-considered tourism planning and development has had significant negative impacts on numerous cultural heritage sites and destinations, Indigenous Peoples and host communities.


The use of heritage in the economic growth-based strategies of the tourism industry globally has been remarkably successful. However, it has often failed to deliver equitable benefit-share. Rapid and insensitive commodification, commercialization and overuse of local culture and heritage has resulted in negative and disruptive impacts across countless destinations. It has also provoked restrictions on rights of use, access to and enjoyment of cultural heritage by local people and visitors alike.


The context within which these matters must be considered includes the climate emergency, environmental degradation, conflicts, disasters, the disruptive effects of the Covid-19 pandemic, mass tourism, digital transformation and technological developments. There is a need and opportunity to recalibrate the perpetual economic growth-based approach to tourism, recognizing and mitigating its unsustainable aspects.


Any cultural tourism strategy must accept that cultural heritage protection, social responsibility and ‘sustainability’ are not merely options or brand attributes, but rather necessary commitments and, in fact, a competitiveness asset. In order to remain successful and sustainable in the long term, cultural tourism proponents must put this commitment into practice and become a force that supports community resilience, responsible consumption and production, human rights, gender equality, climate action, and environmental and cultural heritage conservation.


For this reason, the Charter is formulated in the context of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which specifically mention tourism in Targets 8.9, 12b and 14.7. Cultural tourism also has the potential to contribute, directly or indirectly, to Target 11.4 which aims to “strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage”. Working towards the UN’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the responsible national, regional and municipal governing institutions have a duty to ensure that the SDGs and their targets are integrated into the planning, management and monitoring of cultural heritage and tourism destinations. 

   

The Principles of the Charter


Recalling the previous Cultural Tourism Charters (1976 and 1999) and other existing standard- setting texts developed by ICOMOS, ICCROM, IUCN, UNESCO, the UNWTO, other relevant NGOs, intergovernmental organizations, agencies and institutions;

 

Acknowledging that, at the broadest level, natural and cultural heritage is relevant to all people, and that rights of access and enjoyment are linked to the responsibility to respect, understand, appreciate and conserve its universal and particular values;

Affirming that cultural heritage protection and responsible cultural tourism planning and management must be informed by the systematic identification and monitoring of tourism impacts on heritage places, destinations and communities;


Understanding that the resilience and adaptive capacity of communities and equitable benefit share must be fundamental goals of cultural tourism;


Recognizing the need and opportunity to re-balance tourism, moving away from mass tourism towards a more sustainable, responsible and community-centered tourism with cultural heritage at its centre;


The principles set out below provide a framework for guidance on this subject that is not present in other documents concerning cultural heritage or tourism:


●Principle 1: Place cultural heritage protection and conservation at the centre of responsible cultural tourism planning and management;

●Principle 2: Manage tourism at cultural heritage places through management plans informed by monitoring, carrying capacity and other planning instruments;

●Principle 3: Enhance public awareness and visitor experience through sensitive interpretation and presentation of cultural heritage;

●Principle 4: Recognize and reinforce the rights of communities, Indigenous Peoples and traditional owners by including access and engagement in participatory governance of the cultural and natural heritage commons used in tourism;

●Principle 5: Raise awareness and reinforce cooperation for cultural heritage conservation among all stakeholders involved in tourism;

●Principle 6: Increase the resilience of communities and cultural heritage through capacity development, risk assessment, strategic planning and adaptive management;

●Principle 7: Integrate climate action and sustainability measures in the management of cultural tourism and cultural heritage.

   

Principle 1: Place cultural heritage protection and conservation at the centre of responsible cultural tourism planning and management


Cultural heritage protection and management must be placed at the centre of cultural tourism policies and planning. Well-managed cultural heritage tourism enables communities to participate, while maintaining their heritage, social cohesion and cultural practices.

Visitor management needs to be integrated into heritage management plans, considering the complex and multifaceted relationships within and between communities and their heritage. Good destination planning and management involves the protection of tangible assets and intangible values of cultural heritage. Tourism planning and cultural heritage management must be coordinated across all levels of governance in order to identify, assess and avoid the adverse impacts of tourism on heritage fabric, integrity and authenticity. Heritage and Environmental Impact Assessments must inform the planning and development of tourism.


Management of cultural tourism is not limited to the legal boundaries of cultural heritage properties. Tourism development, infrastructure projects and management plans must contribute to preserving the integrity, authenticity, aesthetic, social and cultural dimensions of heritage places, including their settings, natural and cultural landscapes, host communities, biodiversity characteristics and the broader visual context. Destination management should integrate with, and inform social, political and development frameworks considering the local environmental conditions and cultural heritage protection priorities.


Revenues generated through cultural heritage tourism must contribute to the conservation of cultural heritage and provide benefit to local communities. Revenues should be collected and allocated in a transparent, fair, equitable and accountable manner. Visitors should be made aware of their contribution to cultural heritage funding and maintenance.


Principle 2: Manage tourism at cultural heritage places through management plans informed by monitoring, carrying capacity and other planning instruments


The protection of cultural heritage and resilience of host communities requires careful tourism planning and visitor management. It includes the monitoring of impacts on the natural and cultural values of the place as well as on the social, economic and cultural well-being of the host community.


Cultural heritage management plans must include tourism sustainability and visitor management strategies. These should integrate a range of measures including carrying capacity indicators in order to control, concentrate or disperse visitors as appropriate.


Site specific actions can be taken to limit group sizes, time group access, restrict entry, close sensitive areas providing remote access where appropriate, restrict or increase opening hours, zone compatible activities, require advance bookings, regulate traffic and/or undertake other forms of supervision.


The identification of carrying capacity and/or limits of acceptable change is essential to avoid negative impacts on cultural tangible and intangible heritage. Carrying capacity assessment must include the following as minimum:


● Physical carrying capacity: the ability of a place to host visitors depending on its condition, fragility and conservation status while providing appropriate visitor services.

● Ecological carrying capacity: the ability of the ecosystem and host communities to accommodate visitors while maintaining sustainability, functionality and heritage values.

● Social and cultural carrying capacity: the degree to which communities can host visitors, while providing quality visitor experiences.

● Economic carrying capacity: the degree to which tourism supports economic diversity at a local, regional and/or national level.


Monitoring and carrying capacity assessments need to use a participatory process involving a broad representation of community, cultural heritage and tourism stakeholders. Carrying capacity indicators need to be specific to the nature of the place and the community under consideration and need to be monitored, benchmarked and updated on a regular basis.


Visitor-related indicators are crucial to assess all the dimensions of carrying capacity while ensuring the safety of the site, the security and experience of the visitors and the ability of the place to provide other functions.

   

Principle 3: Enhance public awareness and visitor experience through sensitive interpretation and presentation of cultural heritage


Interpretation and presentation provide education and life- long learning. It raises awareness and appreciation of culture and heritage, fostering intercultural tolerance and dialogue, and enhancing capacities within host communities.


Responsible tourism and cultural heritage management must provide accurate and respectful interpretation, presentation, dissemination and communication. It must offer opportunities for host communities to present their cultural heritage first hand. It must also provide a worthwhile visitor experience and opportunities for discovery, inclusive enjoyment and learning. Heritage presentation and promotion should interpret and communicate the diversity and interconnections of tangible and intangible cultural values in order to enhance the appreciation and understanding of their significance. The authenticity, values and significance of places are often complex, contested and multifaceted, and every effort should be taken to be inclusive when considering the interpretation and presentation of information. Interpretation methods should not detract from the authenticity of the place. It can use appropriate, stimulating and contemporary forms of education and training, using networks and social media. There are significant opportunities for the use of technology, including augmented reality and virtual reconstructions based on scientific research. Communication at destinations and heritage places must address conservation and community rights, issues and challenges, so that visitors and tourism operators are made aware that they must be respectful and responsible when visiting and promoting heritage.


Interpretation and presentation enhance visitor experiences of heritage places and should be accessible to all, including people with disabilities. Remote interpretation tools must be used in circumstances where visitor access may threaten heritage fabric and its integrity. It can also be used where universal access cannot be achieved, using multiple languages where feasible.


Heritage practitioners and professionals, site managers and communities share the responsibility to interpret and communicate heritage. The interpretation and presentation of cultural heritage must be representative and acknowledge challenging aspects of the history and memory of the place. It should be based on interdisciplinary research, including the most up-to-date science and the knowledge of local peoples and communities. It should be conducted professionally within an appropriate certification framework. Efforts should be made to improve regulation of heritage presentation, interpretation, dissemination and communication. The knowledge represented and generated in relevant disciplines for cultural heritage (i.e., art history, history, archaeology, anthropology or architecture) must inform and ensure the quality of interpretation and presentation of heritage places.

   

Principle 4: Recognize and reinforce the rights of communities, Indigenous Peoples and traditional owners by including access and engagement in participatory governance of the cultural and natural heritage commons used in tourism


Exponential growth in international tourism has exposed blind spots and lack of sensitivity towards the vulnerability of many tourism-dependent communities and those who have experienced tourist visitation imposed on them without their ‘free, prior and informed consent’ (United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 2007). Indigenous peoples, traditional owners and host communities have a right to express their views on heritage and to manage it according to their established practices and meanings.


Cultural tourism has offered and will continue to promise economic opportunities and employment, but in the future, community engagement in tourism development must be facilitated. Tourism benefits must be equitably shared and include fair and decent tourism employment.


Growth in tourism has also caused an unintended decline in cultural and traditional contribution to local economic diversity. While individually these sectors may be economically marginal, diversity is necessary for the economic resilience of local communities.


An important principle in the responsible development and management of cultural heritage and tourism is inclusive involvement and access to economic opportunities, as well as recreation and enjoyment. Cultural heritage management authorities need to be aware of and sensitive towards communities’ rights, needs and desires for more diverse heritage activities, experiences and programmes, increasing cultural heritage relevance for local people. While transition towards a more circular and sharing based economy may reduce the environmental footprint of economic activities, its application must also consider potential unintended consequences such as weakened worker rights. Use of incentives may encourage desired behaviors and outcomes.


Against the backdrop of rapid and ongoing global change and related cross-cutting issues, tourism cannot continue in an unsustainable perpetual growth paradigm. Marginal improvements will not suffice. The development of responsible cultural tourism must go beyond local stakeholder consultation and involve participatory governance and benefit share. It must embrace the fundamental recognition of human, collective, community and indigenous rights embedded in the cultural and natural heritage commons. It must also involve broad based participation with gender equality and inclusion of traditional owners, minorities and disadvantaged groups in cultural heritage stewardship and decision making, including tourism management and destination development strategies.

   

Principle 5: Raise awareness and reinforce cooperation for cultural heritage conservation among all stakeholders involved in tourism


Cultural heritage is a significant resource for tourism and plays a major role in the attraction of travel, but its fragility and conservation requirements are insufficiently recognized. Awareness and understanding of long-term protection and conservation requirements of heritage places is necessary in tourism planning and management. Cross sectoral collaboration, learning and capacity development need to be encouraged and implemented in order to increase engagement, understanding and participation around cultural heritage and tourism planning.


The limitations and/or vulnerabilities of heritage need to inform and shape tourism decision making and communication. Tourists and visitors should not be considered passive observers or simply consumers; they are active participants who should be made aware of their responsibility to behave respectfully and the ways in which they can contribute towards heritage protection and local sustainability.


Cultural tourism cannot be considered an economic activity detached from the place where it occurs. Visitor activities and services must be part of and compatible with everyday life and social activity, contributing to a sustained local sense of place and pride. Cultural and tourism products and services including events and festivals have to be consistent with the identity of places and their communities. To achieve a more cooperative framework in heritage conservation and tourism development, heritage administrators need to develop their knowledge and awareness of tourism sustainability principles and dynamics. Tourism professionals and practitioners must be trained on heritage protection and administration. Heritage managers, public tourism managers, private tourism operators, entrepreneurs and people involved in cultural and creative industries need to generate and/or maintain formal and informal networks for communication and collaboration.


Participatory governance through shared ownership and stewardship of cultural and natural heritage allows for new perspectives and collaborative efforts in the reorientation of practice, and it can therefore lead towards new and more resilient pathways for sustainable development.

   

Principle 6: Increase the resilience of communities and cultural heritage through capacity development, risk assessment, strategic planning and adaptive management


Considering disruptions affecting tourism, ongoing systemic and pervasive global problems and emergent risks, it is necessary to enhance the resilience, adaptive and transformative capacities of communities to deal with future challenges and disruptions related to climate change, loss of biodiversity and/or calamities that affect cultural heritage.


The massive decline in tourist activities due to the Covid 19 pandemic has exposed the vulnerability of many heritage places and the communities hosting cultural tourism. It has clearly demonstrated that tourism must actively contribute to recovery, resilience and heritage conservation, and that heritage places and host communities must consider adaptation options.


Resilience in relation to cultural heritage and tourism requires concerted initiatives and interdisciplinary capacity development at the local level. Capacity building should aim to increase the ability of communities to foresee and reduce risks. It should help them make informed decisions concerning cultural heritage management and tourist use of resources to minimize the negative societal and economic impacts of disruption or intensification of use. Traditional knowledge should also inform innovative and adaptive strategies for resilience and adaptation. Heritage managers should ensure they have the necessary knowledge, capacity and tools to prepare for and respond to changing contexts and developing challenges.


Any strategic planning and adaptive management of cultural tourism should include heritage impact assessment (HIAs), environmental impact assessment (EIAs), disaster risk management and other relevant risk assessments. Climate change vulnerability assessments will become increasingly important in the future. All of these require anticipatory scenarios, contingency planning, and mitigation and reduction measures considering and involving all stakeholders. Impact assessments and monitoring must be appropriate, regularly updated and easily applicable, informing development and management decision making. In order to serve as a catalyst for community resilience, cultural tourism requires increased cooperation across sectors and vision applied to practice.

   

Principle 7: Integrate climate action and sustainability measures in the management of cultural tourism and cultural heritage


The climate emergency is an existential threat to the planet and the civilization as we know it. It jeopardizes cultural and natural heritage, and threatens the livelihoods and wellbeing of people across the world. Tourism dependent communities are particularly vulnerable.


All cultural tourism stakeholders must take action to mitigate, reduce and manage climate impacts. Actions should enhance the ability of communities to generate, retain and maintain sustainable benefits from cultural tourism. Tourism activities must minimize their greenhouse gas emissions. This is a shared responsibility of governments, tour operators, tourism businesses, destination managers and marketing organizations, site management authorities, land-use planners, heritage and tourism professionals, civil society and visitors. Enforcement should be ensured via incentives, bylaws, policies and guidelines that are updated as necessary.


Climate action is a personal, collective and professional responsibility beyond national commitments and the Paris Accord. Tourism and visitor management must contribute to effective carbon and greenhouse gas reduction, waste management, reuse, recycling, energy and water conservation, green transport and infrastructures that comply with international and national targets. Measures to support heritage conservation, biodiversity and natural ecosystems need to be a priority in planning, implementation and evaluation of tourism and visitor management strategies. Adaptive reuse and retrofitting of built and vernacular heritage can contribute to climate adaptation and retain a more authentic visitor experience.


Climate action strategies must consider traditional ownership, knowledge and practices. Communication, information, heritage interpretation, education and training must increase the awareness about the climate emergency and its consequences for natural and cultural heritage, especially where communities and destinations are at risk. The presentation and interpretation of heritage places open to the public must also contribute to these tasks including messages about climate impacts on preservation and the environment. This invites the consideration of innovative technologies that can be used for these purposes.


Climate change is calling for a transformational and regenerative approach to cultural tourism where the priorities focus on building resilient and adaptive communities and heritage places.

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Relevant charters, recommendations and policy instruments are set out in an Annexure to this Charter accessible on the ICTC website

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This charter has been drafted by the ICOMOS International Committee on Cultural Tourism through a task force composed of the following members: Celia Martínez (Coordinator), Fergus Maclaren (President), Cecilie Smith-Christensen, Margaret Gowen, Jim Donovan, Ian Kelly, Sue Millar, Sofía Fonseca, Tomeu Deyá, Ananya Bhattacharya and Carlos Alberto Hiriart. 


[提议最终草案]国际古迹遗址理事会(ICOMOS)国际文化遗产旅游宪章(2021):通过负责任和可持续的旅游管理,加强文化遗产保护及社区韧性


该议案于2021年10月27日及11月3日由ICOMOS科学委员会、顾问委员会批准。将在2022年召开的ICOMOS年度大会上通过。


导言


包括文化遗产旅游在内的全球旅游业的迅猛扩张和乱象丛生使得修订《国际古迹遗址理事会国际文化旅游宪章》(1999)势在必行。在此背景下,《国际古迹遗址理事会国际文化遗产旅游宪章:通过负责任和可持续的旅游管理,加强文化遗产保护及社区韧性》(2021)(以下简称《宪章》)应运而生。《宪章》对上一版本的内容进行了补充和更新。除了认识到旅游业对文化遗产地和旅游目的地的过度开发外,《宪章》还回应了人们对文化遗产退化以及与旅游相关的社会、伦理、文化、环境和经济权利等问题的日益关切。


《宪章》指出,文化遗产旅游是在遗产地和目的地进行的一切旅游活动,包括了解当地有形、无形、文化、自然、过去和现在等维度的多样性和相互依赖性。《宪章》认为,遗产是一种公共资源,治理和享受这些资源是全人类共同的责任和权利。


在参与文化生活时参观文化遗产是一项人权。然而,旅游业的变迁导致对包括文化和自然遗产在内的全球资源从根本上不可持续利用。这就要求制定一份宪章来倡导负责任和多样化的文化旅游开发和管理,以加强文化遗产保护;推进社区赋权,增强社会韧性,提升社会福祉;同时营造一个健康的全球环境。


妥善规划和负责任地管理文化遗产旅游,包括不同文化、权利人和利益相关者的参与式治理,是保护文化遗产和可持续发展的有力工具。负责任旅游(responsible tourism)树立并增强文化遗产意识,为增进个人及社区的福祉和增强社区韧性提供机会,同时建立起对其他文化多样性的尊重。因此,负责任旅游可以促进文化间的对话与合作、相互理解与和平建设。


《宪章》目标:


目标1 将保护文化遗产和社区权利置于文化遗产旅游政策和项目的核心。为此,提供一些准则,为文化遗产保护、增强社区韧性和适应力提供负责任的旅游规划和管理的相关信息;


目标2 在文化遗产和旅游业的管理中推进利益相关者之间的合作及参与式治理,采用以人为本和权利本位的方法,强调文化遗产的参观、教育和享受;


目标3 指导对文化遗产和旅游的管理,以支持联合国可持续发展目标和气候行动政策。

《宪章》针对群体:


旅游的责任管理是政府、旅游经营者、旅游企业、目的地管理者及营销组织、景区管理部门、土地使用规划者、遗产及旅游专业人士、民间团体和游客的共同责任。《宪章》与上述所有的文化遗产和旅游利益相关者相关。《宪章》为国际、国家和地方政府机关、组织、机构和行政部门内的遗产和旅游从业者、专业人士以及决策者提供指导,并致力于为从事文化遗产和旅游行业的教育工作者、学者、研究人员和学生提供参考。《宪章》适用于所有文化遗产的管理,及其保护、保存、阐释、展示和推广等全方位的活动,因为所有这些活动都与公众使用和参观紧密相关,并深受其影响。


《宪章》旨在协调文化遗产和旅游利益相关者的工作,以追求积极的变革;为意识到遗产价值及其脆弱性和潜力的再生旅游目的地管理提供准则。它寻求在所在社区内公平、符合道德且合理地分配旅游利益,促进减贫。《宪章》推进文化遗产和旅游的有道德的管理,并呼吁将其准则融入文化遗产旅游的各个方面。

背景


文化遗产及其独特性的品牌化和营销刺激并推动了遗产地旅游业的指数级增长。旅游业对拥有历史文化街区、独特文化景观的城镇和城市产生了巨大影响。同时它还影响了历史遗址、古迹以及自然和文化景观。游客和旅游部门对物质和非物质遗产的兴趣促使当地社区进一步认识到遗产的价值以及遗产对其生活质量和身份认同的重要意义。原住民社区尤其倾向于认识到人与其生活的土地之间关系的脆弱性,以及确保旅游业维持而非侵蚀遗产和传统的必要性。


利用全球对文化遗产日益增长的兴趣,旅游业已发展成为全球、国家、区域和地方经济的重要组成部分。如果通过参与式治理进行负责任地规划、开发和管理,旅游业就能够在可持续性的各个方面提供直接、间接和诱发效益。然而,未经管理的旅游业的增长已经改变了世界上的许多地方,使依赖旅游业的社区发生了重大改变,社区韧性下降。


日益增长的全球财富,世界范围内的互联互通与低成本的旅游活动一起,导致了世界多地大众旅游的发展。它们还导致了“过度旅游”现象,其特点是普遍的拥挤、物质和非物质遗产的不可接受的退化以及相关的社会、文化和经济影响。对文化遗产的广泛宣传、营销和利用也造成了遗产的商品化和士绅化,损害了当地社区及文化的完整性,并将这种不可替代的资产置于危险之中。情况不止如此,考虑不周的旅游规划和发展对许多文化遗产地和目的地、原住民和当地社区都产生了重大的负面影响。


在全球旅游业以经济增长为基础的战略中,对遗产的利用取得了显著的成果。然而,它往往未能实现公平的利益分享。对当地文化及遗产的快速而麻木的商品化、商业化和过度使用在无数目的地造成了负面的和破坏性的影响。同时,它还引发了对当地居民及游客使用、参观和享受文化遗产的权利的限制。


必须考虑上述问题的背景包括气候危机、环境退化、冲突、灾害、新冠肺炎疫情的灾难性影响、大众旅游、数字化转型和技术发展。有必要也有机会重新调整一直以来以经济增长为基础的旅游方式,认识并减少不可持续的问题。


任何文化旅游战略都必须承认,文化遗产保护、社会责任和“可持续性”不仅仅是选项或品牌属性,更是必要的承诺,事实上也是一种竞争力资产。为了长期维持成功和可持续发展,文化旅游支持者必须将这一承诺付诸实践,成为支持社区韧性建设、负责任的消费和生产、人权、性别平等、气候行动以及环境和文化遗产保护的力量。


为此,《宪章》的制定以联合国可持续发展目标(SDGs)的提出为背景,其中目标8.9、12b和14.7特别提到了旅游业。文化旅游也有可能直接或间接地对旨在“加强对世界文化和自然遗产的保护及捍卫”的目标11.4做出贡献。为实现联合国《2030年可持续发展议程》,负责任的国家、地区和市政管理机构有责任确保将可持续发展目标及其指标纳入文化遗产和旅游目的地的规划、管理和监测之中。

《宪章》准则


回顾先前的《文化旅游宪章》(1976和1999)以及由国际古迹遗址理事会(ICOMOS)、国际文物保护与修复研究中心(ICCROM)、世界自然保护联盟(IUCN)、联合国教科文组织(UNESCO)、世界旅游组织(UNWTO)、其他相关非政府组织、政府间组织、机构和部门制定的其他设定标准的文本;


承认在最广泛的层面上,自然和文化遗产与全人类相关,获得和享有这些遗产的权利与尊重、理解、欣赏和保护其普遍和特殊价值的责任有关;


确认文化遗产保护和负责任的文化旅游规划及管理必须通过系统地识别和监测旅游对遗产地、目的地和社区的影响来进行;


理解文化旅游必须以保证社区韧性、社区适应能力和公平的利益分享为其基本目标;


认识重新平衡旅游业的必要性和机遇,从大众旅游转向以文化遗产为中心的更可持续、更负责任和以社区为中心的旅游;


下列准则为这个问题提供了一个指导框架,这是其它有关文化遗产或旅游业的文件所没有的:


● 准则1:将文化遗产的保护和保存置于负责任的文化旅游规划和管理的中心;


● 准则2:利用根据监测、承载力和其他规划工具制定的管理计划管理文化遗产地的旅游业;


● 准则3:通过易于公众理解的文化遗产阐释和展示,提高公众意识和游客体验;

● 准则4:通过鼓励人们接触与参加对旅游业中被利用的公共文化和自然遗产资源的参与性治理,承认和增加社区、原住民和传统所有者的权利;

● 准则5:提高所有旅游业利益相关者对文化遗产保护的意识,并加强其合作;


● 准则6:通过能力建设、风险评估、战略规划和适应性管理,提高社区和文化遗产的韧性;


● 准则7:将气候行动和可持续性措施纳入文化旅游及文化遗产管理。


准则1:将文化遗产的保护和保存置于负责任的文化旅游规划和管理的中心


文化遗产的保护和管理必须被置于文化旅游政策和规划的核心位置。管理有序的文化遗产旅游能使社区参与其中,并在同时维持其遗产、社会凝聚力和文化习俗。


考虑到社区和其遗产内部及二者之间存在着复杂且多方面的关系,游客管理需要被纳入遗产管理计划。良好的目的地规划和管理涉及到对文化遗产的有形资产和非物质价值的保护。旅游规划和文化遗产管理必须在各级治理主体之间进行协调,以识别、评估和避免旅游业对遗产结构、完整性和真实性的不利影响。遗产和环境影响评估必须为旅游业的规划和发展提供信息。


文化旅游的管理对象并不局限于法律对文化遗产的界定。旅游开发、基础设施项目和管理计划必须有助于对遗产地完整性、真实性、美学、社会和文化维度的保护,包括保护遗产地的周边环境、自然和文化景观、原住民社区、生物多样性特征和更广泛的视觉语境。目的地管理应考虑当地环境条件和文化遗产保护的优先事项,与社会、政治和发展框架相结合并为其提供信息。


文化遗产旅游所产生的收入必须用于文化遗产保护,并为当地社区提供利益。应以透明、公正、公平和负责任的方式取得和分配收入。应让游客了解其对文化遗产资金的筹集和对文化遗产的维护所作的贡献。


准则2:利用根据监测、承载力和其他规划工具制定的管理计划管理文化遗产地的旅游业


保护文化遗产和原住民社区的韧性离不开周密的旅游规划和游客管理。这包括监测旅游业对当地的自然和文化价值以及对原住民社区的社会、经济和文化福祉的影响。


文化遗产管理计划必须涵盖旅游可持续性和游客管理战略。这些战略应该整合包括承载力指标在内的一系列相关措施,以便适当地控制、集中或分散游客。


可以采取具体的措施来限制游客规模,安排游客参观时间,控制景区参观人数,关闭敏感区域并在适当的情况下提供远程参观,限制或增加开放时间,对户外娱乐活动进行分区,建立预订制度,管制交通和/或采取其他形式的监督。


确定承载力和/或可接受的变化的限度对于避免对物质和非物质文化遗产造成负面影响至关重要。承载力评估必须至少包括以下内容:


● 物理承载力:一个地方根据其条件、脆弱性和保护状况接待游客并提供适当的游客服务的能力。


● 生态承载力:生态系统和遗产地社区在保持其可持续性、功能性和遗产价值的同时容纳游客的能力。


● 社会和文化承载力:社区为游客提供高质量旅游体验的能力。


● 经济承载力:旅游业支持地方、区域和/或国家层面的经济多样性的程度。


监测和承载力评估需要采用一个参与式过程,涉及社区、文化遗产和旅游利益相关者的广泛代表。承载力指标需要针对当地及其社区的性质而定,并需要定期进行监测、评估和更新。


与游客相关的指标对于在确保景区安全,游客安全与体验及该地提供其他功能的能力的同时评估承载力的各个维度至关重要。


准则3:通过易于公众理解的文化遗产阐释和展示,提高公众意识和游客体验


文化遗产的解说和展示为公众提供教育和终身学习的资源。它能够增进人们对文化及遗产的认识和理解,促进文化间的包容与对话并提高原住民社区的能力。


负责任的旅游和文化遗产管理应提供对文化遗产准确且尊重的阐释、展示、推广和交流的平台;应为原住民社区提供亲自展示其文化遗产的机会;还应提供有价值的游客体验,以及发现、充分享受和学习的机会。遗产的展示和推广应该诠释并传达物质和非物质文化价值的多样性和互连性,以提高公众对其重要性的认识和理解。遗产地的真实性、价值和意义通常是复杂的、有争议的和多层面的,在考虑相关信息的解说和展示时应尽力做到包容。阐释方法不可损害地方的真实性,可以利用网络和社交媒体使用适当的、激励性的和现代的教育和培训形式,。有非常多的机会可以使用先进科技,包括基于科学研究的增强现实和虚拟重建技术。关于目的地和遗产地的交流应涉及遗产保护及社区的权利、问题和挑战,以便让游客和旅游经营者意识到他们在参观和宣传推广遗产时应持尊重和负责的态度。


阐释和展示可以增强游客对遗产地的体验,并且应该面向包括残疾人在内的所有人。在游客参观遗产地可能威胁到遗产结构及其完整性的情况下,应使用远程阐释工具。若遗产地无法实现普遍访问,也可以使用远程阐释工具,可行时还可提供多语言服务。


遗产从业者和专业人士、遗址管理者和社区共同承担着解说和宣传遗产的责任。文化遗产的阐释和展示必须具有代表性,并承认该遗产的历史和记忆中具有挑战性的部分;它应该以跨学科研究为基础,涵盖最新的科学知识及当地人和社区的知识;它应在适当的认证框架内专业地进行。同时,应努力完善对遗产展示、阐释、宣传和沟通的监管。文化遗产相关学科(即艺术史、历史、考古学、人类学或建筑学)的知识应为遗产地的阐释和展示提供专业信息并确保其质量。

准则4:通过鼓励人们接触与参加对旅游业中被利用的公共文化和自然遗产资源的参与性治理,承认和增加社区、原住民和传统所有者的权利


国际旅游业的指数级增长暴露了发展的盲区以及行业对社区的脆弱性缺乏敏感度。这些社区或是依赖旅游业,或是经历过未经其“自由、事先和知情同意”(《联合国原住民权利宣言》,2007年)而被强加的旅游参观。原住民、传统所有者和当地社区有权表达他们对遗产的看法,并按照其既定惯例和理解来管理遗产。


文化旅游已经并将继续提供大量的经济和就业机会,但在未来,应该促进社区参与旅游发展。包括提供公平、体面的旅游就业在内的旅游业的利益应被公平地分享。


旅游业的增长也导致了文化及传统对当地经济多样性贡献的意外下降。尽管这些领域在经济上可能各自处于边缘地位,但多样性对维系当地社区的经济韧性而言是必要的。


包容性参与、获得经济机会、娱乐和享受是负责任文化遗产和旅游开发及管理的一项重要原则。文化遗产管理部门需要意识到社区的权利、需求和对更多样化的遗产活动、经验和项目的渴望,并对其保持敏感,提高文化遗产对当地民众的意义。尽管向更加循环和共享的经济转型可能会减少经济活动的环境足迹,但在应用时也必须考虑其潜在的意外后果,如削弱工人权利等。使用激励措施有助于出现理想的行为和结果。


在快速且持续的全球变化以及相关交叉问题的背景下,旅游业不能在不可持续的永久增长模式中继续下去。小幅度的改善是不够的。负责任的文化旅游的发展必须超越当地利益相关者的意见,应涵盖参与性治理和利益分享。它必须从根本上承认公共文化和自然遗产所包含的人类、集体、社区和原住民的权利。此外,负责任旅游还要求广泛的人员参与,包括落实性别平等以及将传统所有者、少数民族和弱势群体纳入到包括旅游管理和目的地发展战略在内的文化遗产管理和决策制定中。

准则5:提高所有旅游业利益相关者对文化遗产保护的意识,并加强其合作

文化遗产是旅游业的重要资源,在吸引游客方面发挥着重要作用,但其脆弱性和保护需求尚未得到充分认识。在旅游规划和管理中,认识和理解到遗产需要长期保护和保存是必要的。需要鼓励和实施跨部门的合作、学习和能力培养,以增加对文化遗产和旅游规划的关注、理解及参与。


遗产的局限性和/或脆弱性应为旅游决策的制定和沟通提供信息和指导。旅游者和参观者不应被视作被动的观察者或简单的消费者;他们是积极的参与者,应使其意识到其有责任以尊重的方式行事,以及其可以为遗产保护和地方可持续发展做出贡献的方式。


文化旅游不能被认为是一种脱离其发生地的经济活动。游客的活动和服务必须是当地日常生活和社会活动的一部分,并与之相容,维持当地社区的地方感和自豪感。包括活动、节庆在内的文化和旅游产品和服务必须与地方及其社区的身份相一致。为了在遗产保护和旅游发展中构建一个更加协同的框架,遗产管理人员需要丰富自身对旅游可持续性原则和动态变化的知识,并增强相关意识。旅游专业人员和从业者必须接受遗产保护和管理方面的培训。遗产管理者、公共旅游管理者、私人旅游经营者、企业家和文化创意产业的从业者需要建立和/或维持正式和非正式的沟通和合作网络。


以对文化和自然遗产的共同所有权和管理权进行参与式治理,可以在实践的重新定位中获得新的视角和合作努力,因此它将引导可持续发展走向更具韧性的新道路。


准则6:通过能力建设、风险评估、战略规划和适应性管理,提高社区和文化遗产的韧性


考虑到影响旅游业的干扰性事件、正在发生的系统性和普遍的全球问题以及新出现的风险,有必要提高社区的韧性、适应能力和转型能力,以应对与气候变化、生物多样性丧失和/或影响文化遗产的灾难有关的未来挑战。


新冠肺炎疫情导致的旅游活动大幅减少暴露出许多遗产地和文化旅游所在社区的脆弱性。这清楚地表明,旅游业必须积极促进社区恢复、增强社区韧性和遗产保护,同时,遗产地和原住民社区也需要考虑适合的方案。


与文化遗产和旅游业相关的韧性离不开地方层面上的协同举措和跨学科能力的建设。能力建设应以提高社区预见和减少风险的能力为目标;应帮助遗产地相关部门在文化遗产管理及旅游资源利用方面作出明智的决定,以最大限度地减少因破坏或过度开发所造成的负面的社会和经济影响。传统知识还应为关于增强社区韧性及适应能力的创新和适应性战略提供信息。遗产管理者应保证自己具备必要的知识、能力和工具,以准备好随时应对不断变化的环境和发展过程中的挑战。


任何文化旅游的战略规划和适应性管理都应包括遗产影响评估(HIAs)、环境影响评估(EIAs)、灾害风险管理和其他相关的风险评估。气候变化脆弱性评估在未来将变得愈发重要。所有评估都需要有情景模拟、应急规划,以及考虑并涉及所有利益相关者的风险降低措施。影响评估和监测必须是适当的、定期更新且易于应用的,并为开发及管理决策的制定提供信息。为了成为增强社区韧性的催化剂,文化旅游需要加强各部门的合作,并将其愿景付诸实践。


准则7:将气候行动和可持续性措施纳入文化旅游及文化遗产管理


气候紧急情况是对地球和我们所知的文明的生存威胁。它危及文化和自然遗产,并威胁到全世界人民的生计和福祉。面对气候紧急情况,依赖旅游业的社区尤为脆弱。


所有文化旅游利益相关者都应该采取行动来缓解、减少和管理气候变化造成的影响。这些行动应增强社区从文化旅游中创造、保留和维持可持续利益的能力。同时,旅游活动必须尽量减少温室气体排放。这是政府、旅游经营者、旅游企业、目的地管理者和营销组织、遗址管理部门、土地使用规划者、遗产和旅游专业人员、民间团体和游客的共同责任。应通过时常更新的激励措施、规章制度、政策和指导方针来确保相关行动的执行。


气候行动是超越国家承诺和《巴黎协定》的个人、集体和相关领域从业者的责任。旅游业和游客管理必须有助于有效减少碳和温室气体排放、废物管理、再利用、循环利用、能源和水资源节约、绿色交通和符合国际及国家目标的基础设施建设。在规划、实施和评估旅游和游客管理战略时,必须优先考虑支持遗产保护、生物多样性和自然生态系统的措施。对建筑及乡土遗产的适应性再利用和改造有助于其适应气候变化,并保留更真实的游客体验。


气候行动战略应考虑传统所有权、知识和实践。应通过交流、信息发布、遗产阐释、教育和培训提高公众对气候紧急情况及其对自然和文化遗产的影响的认识,特别是在面临风险的社区和目的地。面向公众的遗产地阐释和展示也应有助于此,包括提供关于气候对遗产保护和环境的影响的信息。这就需要考虑可用于这些目的的创新技术。


气候变化呼吁对文化旅游采取变革性和再生性的方法,重点是建设有韧性及适应性的社区和遗产地。


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相关宪章、建议和政策工具见本《宪章》附件,您可前往ICOMOS国际文化旅游科学委员会(ICTC)网站进行查阅

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该《宪章》由ICOMOS国际文化旅游委员会专门成立的工作组起草而成,该工作组成员包括:Celia Martínez(统筹者), Fergus Maclaren(主席/负责人)、Cecilie Smith-Christensen、Margaret Gowen、Jim Donovan、Ian Kelly、Sue Millar、Sofía Fonseca、Tomeu Deyá、 Ananya Bhattacharya和Carlos Alberto Hiriart(排名不分先后)。


点击下方链接查看:

国际古迹遗址理事会(ICOMOS)文化遗产旅游国际宪章(2021)中英对照

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